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See also: ?

Ancient Greek

Alternative forms

Etymology

From earlier (wánax), ? (wánakos). Cognate with Mycenaean Greek (wa-na-ka) as well as Phrygian (ouanaktan /wanaktan/), Old Phrygian [script needed] (vanaktei), which may be an early loan from Greek[1] or from a common third source.

The further origin is unknown, but likely a borrowing from a Pre-Greek substrate language.[1] Various alternative Indo-European etymologies have been proposed, including:

Pronunciation

 

Noun

? o (ánaxm (genitive ?); third declension

  1. lord, king
    1. (of men)
      • 800 BCE - 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.442-443:
        ? , ?' ? ?
        ô Khrús?, pró m' épempsen ánax andrôn Agamémn?n
        paîdá te soì agémen
        Chryses, Agamemnon, king of men, sent me forth
        to bring to you your daughter.
    2. (of gods, often Apollo and Zeus)
      • 800 BCE - 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 3.351:
        ? '
        ? ?, ?
        Zeû ána dòs tsasthai hó me próteros kák' éorge
        dîon Aléxandron, kaì emêis hupò khersì dámasson
        O Lord Zeus, grant me to punish the man who first has done me wrong,
        noble Alexander, and beat him down under my hands
      • 800 BCE - 600 BCE, Homer, Homeric Hymn to Apollo 14-15:
        , ' ? , ? ,
        ?' ? ?,
        khaîre, mákair' ô L?toî, epeì tékes aglaà tékna,
        ?póll?ná t' ánakta kaì Ártemin ?okhéairan,
        Rejoice, blessed Leto, since you have borne glorious children --
        the lord Apollo and Artemis strewer of arrows,
      • 458 BCE, Aeschylus, Agamemnon 513:
        ?' ? ? ,
        ? ?.
        nûn d' aûte s?t?r ísthi kaì pai?nios,
        ánax Ápollon.
        But, in other mood, be our preserver and our healer,
        O lord Apollo.
  2. master, owner
    • 800 BCE - 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 1.397-398:
      ? ? ?'
      , ? .
      autàr eg?n oíkoio ánax ésom' h?metéroio
      kaì dmn, hoús moi l?íssato dîos Odusseús.
      [Telemachus:] But I shall be lord of our own house
      and of the slaves that godlike Odysseus won for me."

Usage notes

  • Often used to refer to Apollo. The vocative (ána) is only used in the phrases ? (ô ána, "O king") or (ôna), and (Zeû ána, "O Zeus"), and always as an address to gods.

Inflection

Synonyms

  • (lord, master, king): (ánassa, "queen") (feminine), (basileús), (despót?s), (koíranos), ? (krios), (medé?n), (méd?n), (prútanis), (túrannos)

Derived terms

  • (anaktorí?)
  • (Anaktoría)
  • (anaktórios)
  • ? (anáktoron)
  • (Anaktoteléstai)
  • (anákt?r)
  • (Anaxagór?s)
  • (Anaxándra)
  • ? (Anáxandros)
  • ? (Anaxarét?)
  • ? (Anáxarkhos)
  • (anaxí?)
  • ? (anaxíalos)
  • (Anaxíbia)
  • ? (Anaxíbios)
  • ? (anaxibréntas)
  • ? (anaxid?r?)
  • ? (Anaxikrát?s)
  • (Anaxímandros)
  • (Anaximén?s)
  • (anaxímolpos)
  • (Anáxippos)
  • ? (anaxiphórminx)
  • ? (anáss?)
  • (Astuánax)
  • ? (Astuánassa)
  • (eudiánax)
  • ? (Euruánassa)
  • ? (hippiánax)
  • ? (Hippônax)
  • ? (oikônax)
  • (p?siánax)
  • (Pleistoánax)
  • (purip?gánax)
  • ? (T?mônax)
  • (kheirônax)

Related terms

  • (ánassa, "queen")

References

  1. ? 1.0 1.1 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), "?, -", in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, ->ISBN, pages 98-99
  2. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (Oxford Linguistics), New York: Oxford University Press, ->ISBN, page 268
  3. ^ Wodtko, Dagmar S.; Irslinger, Britta; Schneider, Carolin (2008), "*h?e?-", in Nomina im indogermanischen Lexikon [Nouns in the Indo-European Lexicon] (in German), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, pages 267, 270
  • ? in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ? in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • ? in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
  • ? in Bailly, Anatole (1935) Le Grand Bailly: Dictionnaire grec-français, Paris: Hachette
  • ? in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
  • ? in the Diccionario Griego-Español en línea (2006-2021)
  • ? in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
  • Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English-Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[1], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited.

Further reading


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