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Ancient Greek


The four principal parts of the verb display the e-grade, o-grade, and zero-grade (?-, ?-, - (penth-, ponth-, path-) from Proto-Indo-European *k?end?-, *k?ond?-, *k?n?d?) of the root *k?end?- ("to suffer, endure"). Cognate with Lithuanian ken?iù.

The present (páskh?), like the aorist (épathon), comes from the zero-grade - (path-), but with the inchoative suffix - (-sk?) added *--? (*páth-sk-?) and subsequent loss of ? (th) before ? (s) and transference of aspiration from ? (th) to ? (k), resulting in ? (kh). The future stem (peísomai) developed from *?-?-? (*penth-s-omai), from e-grade ?- (penth-) with the tense-suffix ? (s), with subsequent cluster simplification > ? (nths > s) and compensatory lengthening *? > (*e > ei). The future stem (peís?) of the verb (peíth?, "persuade") is identical.

Beekes and others have connected the word to Proto-Indo-European *b?end?- ("to bind") with semantic shift from "to be bound" to "to suffer". Cognates would then include Ancient Greek (pentherós, "father-in-law").[1][2][3]




o (páskh?)

  1. to undergo, experience (as opposed to acting)
  2. (with another person involved) have someone do something to oneself, to be treated a certain way by someone (with (hupó) and genitive, sometimes with adverb of manner)
    1. (in a negative sense) suffer at someone's hands
      • 442 BCE, Sophocles, Antigone 927-929:
          ?' ' , ?
        ? ? ? .
        Antigón?   ei d' hoíd' hamartánousi, m? pleí? kakà
        páthoien ? kaì drôsin ekdík?s emé.
        Antigone:   But if they are wrong [to treat me as a criminal], let them suffer no worse than they are doing unjustly to me.
    2. (law) to suffer a punishment
  3. (without a person involved) to experience something, have something happen to one, undergo something
    1. to be in a certain situation (with adverb of manner)
    2. to feel an emotion or impulse
    3. (in negative sense) suffer
    4. to be ill or injured in a certain way (with accusative of part affected)
      • :
        Páskh? t?n kardían.



  • (to be in a certain situation): (ékh?)


  • (undergo): ? (drá?), ? (rhéz?)

Derived terms

  • (páth?)
  • ? (páth?sis)
  • ? (path?tós)
  • (path?tikós)
  • ? (páth?ma)
  • (path?matikós)
  • (páthos)
  • ? (pathikós)
  • (pénthos)


  1. ^ Holger Pedersen, Zwei Fälle eines irrtümlich als Labiovelar aufgefassten ?, p. 192 ff., in: Revue des Études Indo-européennes (Bucarest), 1/1 (1938), pp. 192-199.
  2. ^ Janda, Michael (2000) Eleusis: Das Indogermanische Erbe Der Mysterien (Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft; 86) (in German), Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck, ->ISBN, page 128
  3. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), "", in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, ->ISBN, page 1156

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